Americans wanted a bolt-action centerfire rifle chambered for a powerful smokeless-powder cartridge. Nothing else would do. In response, Winchester introduced their first commercial, centerfire bolt-action rifle, called the Model 54, in 1925. It was chambered for the .30-06 Springfield cartridge that so many of the boys had fought with and trusted. It was also chambered for a new, hotshot upstart cartridge called the .270 Winchester, which was based on a necked-down case of the 30-06. The .270 was largely ignored at first, but became significant later.